stands for Global Positioning System, a series of satellites and receivers
that are capable of listing precise locations.
GPS uses 24 satellites that orbit the Earth. The satellights broadcast radio signals at a known interval based on atomic clocks. A GPS receiver receives the radiowaves and can calculate its location on Earth. In order for GPS to function properly, a receiver must be in contact with at least 4 satellites.
Land Navigation - People can use GPS to create routes, such as hiking routes or directions. GPS can also be used to get directions to where you want to go. Some automobiles come with navigation systems that are capable of giving driving directions through a small display or via a push of a button.
Examples of how GPS is used:
Sea Navigation - With GPS, sailors no longer need to look at the stars for navigation. They can get precise routes from point A to point B, cutting down sailing time. Coordinates can also be stored to return to an exact location, such as a favorite fishing spots or a scientific research spot.
GPS at Sea
Air Navigation - Pilots can use GPS to get direct flying routes which cut down fuel consumption and time of arrival. Also, GPS provides assistance with landing in various conditions, such as landing in a rocky valley to landing in bad weather.
- Through GPS, public safety vehicles can be tracked. If an incident occurs,
the closest vehicle can be dispatched cutting down the response time and possibly
making the difference between a life or death moment.
With GPS receivers, anything can be tracked. GPS can track the location of people (patients), pets, or possessions worldwide.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has mandated that all mobile phones
sold in the U.S. must have position reporting capability for emergency 911
calls by the year 2001, and other countries are expected to follow soon."
-Jerry J. Huang
Timing - Since GPS satellites use atomic clocks, some industries use the timing precision of GPS to synchronize clocks. International banks use GPS timing to synchronize their computers so that transactions take place at exact times.
Mapping - As a result of GPS, surveying has reached higher levels of precision and become more efficent. What use to take weeks and a team of scientist now takes days and a few people.
said that GPS will be the next utility, and that it is provided free of charge.
It will, like other utilities such as the time, electricity, running water,
and the telephone, become a part of everyone's daily life. A GPS receiver
will soon cost no more than a pocket radio or a watch, meaning that everybody
will be able to afford one. And the applications of this new breed of high-tech
capability are limited only by your imagination."
-Jerry J. Huang
Impressing Velocity 1994 at Tokyo ICC
"A famous modern technology GPS was used with laptop computer for collecting 3 dimentional data path which was generated corresponding to our climbing up and down Mt.Fuji. These 3 dimentional data were used to calculate the velocity in each part of the path and corresponding to the velocity data, the form of a cross-section of the Mt.Fuji was distorted. High velocity will shrink that cross-section data, and in the other hand, low velocity will expand the form of that section, because low nvelocity shows that the person is tired. The state of zero velocity, when we have a rest, will make an explosional form of Mt.Fuji." (Impressing Velocity Project Proposal 1997 )
"For this project, I climbed Mt. Fuji in the summer of 1992 and 1993, equipped with GPS , which can let me know my position in terms of latitude, longitude and altitude. First and foremost this was because there was a tool called GPS. I let my imagination work take off from there. ... I find products that are made unconsciously, without explicit self awareness, and technologies developed without any purpose, more interesting than a situation where a concept comes first, and then, you search for a technology to bring it into realization." (ICC News, Tokyo Summer 1994)
Velocity 1997 at C3, Budapest
"Filed-Work has two different type of activities: Work shop and Installtion. Both using GPS which enables us to know where I am, for collecting movements of participants with Digital Video images. Collective memory in both cyber and real is the main theme of this project ."
"The basic material of Masaki Fujihata's "Field-Work" are digital video images that have been recorded in Tokyo's suburbia with exacte GPS-Data resulting in a topographic und temporal coordinate system. Fujihata transforms this system into a virtual 3-D space in which the video images move along the GPS-tracks. The spectator may follow these traces and navigate across the three-dimensional space."
Tsumari Art Triennale, Niigata.